Kidney stones cause excruciating pain as they move through your urinary tract and increase your risk of infection. Your kidneys filter waste products out of your blood and flush them out of your body as urine. Sometimes, mineral deposits crystalize in your kidneys, forming tiny stones. Kidney stones vary in size and usually consist of calcium or uric acid. You typically don’t develop any symptoms until the stone starts to move around your kidney or through your ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Pain is the hallmark symptom of kidney stones. They typically cause pain in your lower back and sides and painful, burning urination. Other signs of kidney stones include: 

  • Intense urge to urinate
  • Frequent urination
  • Hematuria (blood in your urine)
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever

Diagnosis: Your doctor begins by reviewing your symptoms and medical history. If they suspect you have a kidney stone, the doctor will order additional testing, including urine and blood tests, CT scans, and X-rays. If you pass a kidney stone, they send it to a lab for testing to identify what type you produced. Calcium and uric acid kidney stones respond to different medications.